Milk thistle is one of the main ingredients in FlameEz-Liver. It is native to the Mediterranean regions of Europe and is now found growing in most parts of the world. Milk thistle has been used as a traditional herbal remedy for almost 2,000 years. It is an extraordinary liver rejuvenant and widely used to protect the liver against toxins and to treat liver, kidney, spleen, and gallbladder diseases. Since 1986, it has been approved as a treatment for liver diseases including alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic fatty liver, cirrhosis, liver poisoning and viral hepatitis. Recent experimental and clinical studies also suggest that Milk thistle extracts have anticancer, antidiabetic, and cardioprotective effects.
The dried fruit of Milk thistle is composed of several polyphenolic flavonolignans, collectively called silymarin. The major component (60%) is silybin, which is also the most biologically active component. Other components include silichristin, a metabolic stimulant, and silydianin. Silymarin is found in highest concentrations in the fruit of the plant. Other constituents are flavonoids, a fixed oil (16% to 18%), betaine, trimethylglycine, and amines.
Since 1970s, extensive research has collectively shown that Milk thistle:
Helps stimulate protein synthesis in the liver*
Protects and maintains liver function against compounds that are highly toxic*
Scavenges free radicals and leukotrienes*
Promotes the liver to grow new cells, while discouraging the formation of inactive fibrous tissue*
Stimulates immune system*
Reduces lipid peroxidation and hepatic damage*
Regulates bile secretion*
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
Reference (for abstracts and additional references):
Roy S. et al. p21 and p27 induction by silibinin is essential for its cell cycle arrest effect in prostate carcinoma cells. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. 6(10):2696-707, 2007
Tamayo C. Diamond S. Review of clinical trials evaluating safety and efficacy of milk thistle (Silybum marianum [L.] Gaertn.). [Review] [64 refs] Integrative Cancer Therapies. 6(2):146-57, 2007
White CP. et a. Complementary and alternative medicine use by patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology. 21(9):589-95, 2007
Greenlee H. et al. Clinical applications of Silybum marianum in oncology. [Review] [75 refs] Integrative Cancer Therapies. 6(2):158-65, 2007
Rambaldi A. et al. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases.[update of Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(2):CD003620; PMID: 15846671]. [Review] [145 refs] Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
Lieber CS. et al. Silymarin retards the progression of alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis in baboons. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 37(4):336-9, 2003
Jacobs BP. et al. Milk thistle for the treatment of liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Review] [84 refs] American Journal of Medicine. 113(6):506-15, 2002